Introduction : How Japanese will be translated into Braille on eBraille Server

At first, you input Japanese text, sentence, or words in the frame and transfer it to the eBraille server.

Here, the Japanese text will be modified accordingly.

Normaly Japanese text consists of chinese character and hiragana as shown in the left frame.

Chinese character is ideogram and hiragana is phonogram.

So all Chinese characters in the text are replaced by hiragana as Braille is expressed by the sound of each word. In addition, one space will be put after a certain phrase to make the hiragana text easier to understand. (The text which consists of hiragana is shown in the frame below.)

Some hiragana are pronounced differently from their original pronunciation when they are used as particles. This is similar to the changes of the pronunciation for alphabets in English. For example, "i" is pronounced [ai] as an alphabet or in the word "file," but is pronounced [i] in "coming."

Each hiragana has one pronunciaiton except those particles. Here, the particles are replaced by another hiragana in order to indentify the pronunciation as particles.

The program of this modification is based on Japanese Morphological Analysis.#

The following are the hiragana which have another pronunciation as particles:

Hiragana on the left is normaly pronunced [ha], but [wa] is pronounced when it is used as a particle.

[wa] is originaly expressed by hiragana on the right. This letter cannot be used as a particle.

Th replacment from the particle on the left to the hiragana on the right can be seen in the frames above.

Hiragana on the left is normaly pronunced [he], but [e] is its pronunciation as a particle.

[e] is expressed by hiragana on the right.

#The program of Japanese Morphological Analysis, "ChaSen" is created by Matsumoto Lab., Nara Institute of Science and Technology and used in the eBraille Server.